End Suction Centrifugal Pump Introduction
The end suction centrifugal pump is a kind of centrifugal pump that has a casing with the suction coming from one side and the discharge coming out the top. End suction pumps are almost entirely single stage pumps, meaning they only have one impeller.
It is also the most common layout for centrifugal pumps and the least expensive design in most instances. A wide variety of sizes, designs and materials of construction are on offer by various manufacturers for various applications ranging from water at ambient temperatures to high temperature and high pressure viscous oils, corrosive chemicals, and abrasive slurries.
How it Works
The end suction centrifugal pump normally contains a single impeller and a spiral like casing. The fluid that is being pumped moves along the impeller’s vanes, which increases the fluid’s velocity. From there the fluid is moved into the spiral like casing, where the high velocity is transformed into high pressure by a diffusion process.
These types of pumps are usually powered by an A.C. electric motor, although some are D.C. motor driven, as well as air driven motors, hydraulic motors, gasoline and diesel engine driven and steam turbine driven. These pumps may be close-coupled, with the impeller directly attached to the driver shaft without a separate coupling between them. Alternatively, they may be mounted on a frame, where the pump has its own bearings and a coupling that separates the motor and the pump.
The end suction centrifugal pump is useful in various residential, industrial and commercial applications. Due to the fact that the pumps are highly common and readily available from many suppliers, their prices are usually very attractive.
Standard end suction centrifugal water pumps are normally close coupled and manufactured from standard iron or a variety of plastics. Pumps that are meant for more heavy duty commercial and industrial applications are often mounted on a bedplate with a coupling that separates the motor and the pump. These are usually available in stainless steel and more exotic alloys or plastics for corrosion resistance, while others are manufactured from hardened iron for mining, slurry and dredging applications.
The end suction centrifugal pump can be fitted with an open impeller for food and chemical processing applications that contain solids. Alternatively, it can have a closed impeller for clean water or oil services. The pumps can be designed to specific standards for chemical pump applications or hydrocarbon processing. The pump’s shaft can be sealed from the immediate environment using conventional packing and mechanical seals or it may be a canned motor or magnetic drive type.